赤塚 肇（公益財団法人 鉄道総合技術研究所）
Recently,the relationship between traffic accidents and hazards,as well as hazard perception has been focused. However,it has been difficult to apply the methodologies of these studies to train drivers. Therefore,this research investigated if hazard perception could be assessed by evaluating drivers’ knowledge of possible hazards. Male train drivers working in a Japanese railway company participated in the study. Questionnaires were distributed to participants (N = 449) between January 2006 and March 2006 and 377 questionnaires were collected (response rate 84.0%). Incomplete questionnaires were eliminated and responses of 230 participants (Mean age,37.41 years,sd =7.81) were analyzed. A positive relationship between hazard perception and degree of knowledge about hazards was hypothesized. At this time,the items to analysis were 11 items in the questionnaire. Two items were to ask hazard perception and nine items were to ask knowledge of hazards. Results indicated only a small correlation between hazard perception and knowledge of hazards in Item number 1 of the questionnaire,possible because of prerequisite conditions in hazard confirmation. Results also indicated a strong correlation between hazard perception and knowledge of hazards in Item number 2 of the questionnaire that inquired about appropriate confirmation behaviors,such as gazing at objects using central vision. These results do not suggest necessarily the possibility of using questionnaires to investigate the relationship between knowledge and hazard perception. However,neither the expected effects of group,nor of train depots where drivers worked were significant,possible because individual differences in learning different conditions could have masked any group effects.
キーワード ： ハザード知覚, 自動車運転者, 鉄道運転士, 級内相関係数, 質問紙調査