Occupational Gender Stereotypes among University Students: Their Relationships with Self-Efficacy and Gender Role Attitudes

ADACHI Tomoko(Osaka Kyoiku University)

The problem of occupational gender segregation in Japan has not yet been resolved. Both men and women are apt to choose occupations traditionally dominated by members of their own gender and avoid those dominated by members of the opposite gender. The purpose of this study was to examine occupational gender stereotypes and their relationships with self-efficacy and gender role attitudes. In Study 1, occupational gender stereotypes and self-efficacy were assessed using the Masculinity-Femininity (Mf) scale of the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI), which includes 7 male-dominated occupations and 7 female-dominated occupations. Valid responses were obtained from 383 university students (218 females and 165 males). The results showed that university students recognized traditionally male-dominated occupations as masculine and female-dominated occupations as feminine, regardless of their own gender. In Study 2, analyses of data from 565 women’s university students demonstrated that occupational gender stereotypes were salient in female students with traditional gender role attitudes, and that gender role attitudes moderated the relations between gender stereotypes and self-efficacy for a few occupations which were recognized as gender neutral. These findings have implications for career interventions focusing on gender stereotypes to support contemporary university students.

Keyword : career decision , occupational gender stereotype , self-efficacy , gender role attitude , university student

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